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Lapita culture , cultural complex of what were presumably the original human settlers of Melanesia , much of Polynesia, and parts of Micronesia, and dating between and bce. It is named for a type of fired pottery that was first extensively investigated at the site of Lapita in New Caledonia. The Lapita people were originally from Taiwan and other regions of East Asia. They were highly mobile seaborne explorers and colonists who had established themselves on the Bismarck Archipelago northeast of New Guinea by bce. Beginning about bce they spread to the Solomon Islands; they had reached Fiji , Tonga , and the rest of western Polynesia by bce ; and they had dispersed to Micronesia by bce. The Lapita people are known principally on the basis of the remains of their fired pottery, which consists of beakers, cooking pots, and bowls. Many of the pottery shards that have been found are decorated with geometric designs made by stamping the unfired clay with a toothlike implement. A few shards with figurative designs have also been found.

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Dating girls in our Tongan society has changed alot,when we compare from my parents time and when I was growing up as well it has changed alot in many ways. Changes occur,some accept it, while others are slow to accept the changes that exist. Female are highly ranked and respected in my Tongan society by men. Alot of priviliges were given to the female gender which was passed down to their children. Therefore there was a expected norm of behaviour practised by the men if they wanted to date a female and eventaully married her if the dating was accepted by the girl and her family.

In the olden days it was a normal practise for the man to go the females home and ask the parents,mainly the father if he could come in the afternoon.

Show a genuine interest in ‘anga fakatonga’ (the Tongan way). Tongans are quite proud of anga fakatonga and enjoy explaining various parts of their customs.

The name “Tonga” is composed of to to plant and nga a place. It also means “south. Thus, it is appropriate to translate the nation’s name as “land lying in the south. Location and Geography. Tonga is an archipelago of one hundred fifty islands, thirty-six of which are inhabited. There are four major groups of islands: the Tongatapu, Ha’apai, Vava’u, and Niua groups. Most of the islands are raised coral islands, some are volcanic, and a few are atolls.

Coral beaches lined with palm trees and emerald lagoons with luxuriant tropical vegetation are characteristic features. The capital, Nuku’alofa, is on Tongatapu. The population was 97, according to the census. Since , the growth rate has increased steadily, peaking in the s and s. Migration to New Zealand, Australia, and the United States in the s and s resulted in slower growth. Internal migration has been from the outer, northern, and central islands toward the southern island of Tongatapu.

TRUE CULTURE

But sometimes it’s not always clear cut, says arts columnist Fiona Sturges. I n his new book Humankind: A Hopeful History , the Dutch historian Rutger Bregman argues that humanity is not callous and selfish, but fundamentally compassionate. By way of evidence, he presents the true story of six boys from Tonga in Polynesia who, in , wagged school to go on a fishing trip. After getting caught in a storm, the youths, who were aged between 13 and 16, were shipwrecked Lord of the Flies -style on a tiny island for over a year.

Dating in our culture has its challenges and perks, but I suppose that is the John Leha is an Aboriginal Tongan man based in Sydney, who.

Radiocarbon dating Pacific archaeological sites is fraught with difficulties. Often situated in coastal beach ridges or sand dunes, these sites exhibit horizontal and vertical disturbances, datable materials such as wood charcoal are typically highly degraded, may be derived from old trees or driftwood unless specifically identified to short-lived material, while bone collagen rarely survives in tropical conditions.

Shell, therefore, is the most logical material for dating Pacific sites since it is resistant to alteration, can be sampled to ensure only the last few seasons of growth are represented and is often closely tied to human economic activities. However, shell radiocarbon 14 C dating has been plagued by interpretive problems largely due to our limited knowledge of the 14 C cycle in nearshore marine and estuarine environments.

Consequently, shell dates are typically ignored in regional chronometric evaluations and in recent years shell is often avoided for dating altogether. Recent advances in our understanding of the source of shell 14 C as well as the development of the first South Pacific Gyre model of changing marine 14 C over time, combined with Bayesian statistical modelling, now provide us with insight into the value of these shell radiocarbon dates. Editor: Peter F.

This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.

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Radiocarbon dating Pacific archaeological sites is fraught with difficulties. Often situated in coastal beach ridges or sand dunes, these sites exhibit horizontal and vertical disturbances, datable materials such as wood charcoal are typically highly degraded, may be derived from old trees or driftwood unless specifically identified to short-lived material, while bone collagen rarely survives in tropical conditions.

Shell, therefore, is the most logical material for dating Pacific sites since it is resistant to alteration, can be sampled to ensure only the last few seasons of growth are represented and is often closely tied to human economic activities. However, shell radiocarbon 14 C dating has been plagued by interpretive problems largely due to our limited knowledge of the 14 C cycle in nearshore marine and estuarine environments.

Consequently, shell dates are typically ignored in regional chronometric evaluations and in recent years shell is often avoided for dating altogether.

The Tongan archipelago has been inhabited for perhaps years, since settlement in late Lapita times. The culture of its inhabitants has surely changed.

One of my favorite times of the year is celebrating a wedding of a couple. But I can honestly say that there is no wedding like a Polynesian wedding. Tongan weddings and receptions have always intrigued me. The families seem to put all their eggs in one wedding. Traditionally, Tongan weddings comprise of a number of traditional steps or phases:. Man ask for permission to get married faitohi. A young man meets a girl and is interested in her. He then takes the chance to ask her honestly for her friendship and if the girl accepts, then their relationship starts.

Fakalelea — a celebration before the wedding. This is when they actually date each other. This phase may include the gifting of food, tapa and mats to the family of the bride-to-be.

New Zealand increasing Defence diplomatic presence in the Pacific

Tongan society is guided by four core values, all of which combine to ensure a genuine welcome to visitors to the Kingdom. Family is the central unit of Tongan life. Older people command the most respect and each family member knows their role. A typical family unit may consist of adopted children, cousins and other distant relatives, alongside siblings and grandparents. The two biggest occasions for Tongan families are weddings and funerals where traditional tapa cloths and woven mats are gifted.

Today, many Tongans still live in villages, and traditional village life has not changed greatly from earlier days.

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From Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia. The Tongan archipelago has been inhabited for perhaps years, since settlement in late Lapita times. The culture of its inhabitants has surely changed greatly over this long time period. Before the arrival of European explorers in the late s and early s, the Tongans were in frequent contact with their nearest Oceanic neighbors, Fiji and Samoa.

In the s, with the arrival of Western traders and missionaries, Tongan culture changed dramatically. Some old beliefs and habits were thrown away and others adopted. Some accommodations made in the s and early s are now being challenged by changing Western civilization. Hence Tongan culture is far from a unified or monolithic affair, and Tongans themselves may differ strongly as to what it is “Tongan” to do, or not do.

Contemporary Tongans often have strong ties to overseas lands.

Culture of Tonga

Tonga is the only Pacific Island nation that has never been colonized by foreign power. The monarchy and structure of the government still remains the most powerful thing in Tonga. Life in Tonga is close to the same as it has been for years. Many Tongans still live in village communities following traditional customs. In most villages, there is a special workhouse for the women to make their crafts, such as, the woven mats, and to communicate with each other while creating beautiful works of art [2].

Tattoos use to be the norm in Tonga but under heavy missionary disapproval it slightly disappeared, although not completely.

Lapita culture, cultural complex of what were presumably the original human of Polynesia, and parts of Micronesia, and dating between and bce. they had reached Fiji, Tonga, and the rest of western Polynesia by bce; and​.

After every beating she had a shower, to take the heat from the bruises. Iula [she doesn’t want her surname published] wore long clothes to hide the fresh marks appearing on her body each month. They would sometimes slap my face or hit me with a wooden spoon, or sometimes a stick or a piece of wood. She was punished for speaking back or not doing her chores. Her adopted parents beat her when they came home tired from work. Iula wondered if she deserved their blows. Lupe Puloka, 26, and her daughter Deborah, 2, at home: ‘When I see my auntie bashing words on me, I don’t see love in that.

She’s a slight and sweet year-old, wearing a sports jacket and black skirt, with braided hair hanging over her right shoulder. She says she suffered physical and emotional harm as a child and into her teens, largely at the hands of a female relative. Her story is not uncommon in the Kingdom of Tonga, where three out of four women report suffering domestic violence. Here in the so-called “friendly islands”, women report being punched, kicked, dragged, beaten or choked.

The perpetrator in many cases is another woman. Credit: Edwina Pickles. In most countries, women are more likely to come into conflict with men.

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